Roth IRA, Roth 401(k) or both? This is a choice that is confusing to many retirement savers and likely to some of your clients. In some cases, the answer may be that both are a good choice. In other cases it may be one or the other, or perhaps neither if a Roth account doesn’t fit their situation and their planning needs. Here are a few things to consider.
Perhaps the biggest advantage offered by a Roth IRA is that they are not subject to required minimum distributions. This can offer a number of planning opportunities for clients depending upon their situation.
Not having to take RMDs can be a powerful tool for both retirement and estate planning. The ability to allow the assets in the account to continue to grow tax-free can help clients continue to accumulate retirement savings that can be withdrawn tax-free if needed during retirement. This offers clients tax diversification in terms of their retirement savings.
The estate planning aspect is critical with the new inherited IRA rules for most non-spousal beneficiaries under the Secure Act. Inherited Roth IRAs will pass tax-free to beneficiaries even with the 10-year rule as long as the original Roth IRA account holder had met the five-year rule requirements prior to their death.
A Roth IRA will allow a broader range of investment options than a Roth 401(k), where the menu is limited by the options offered by the plan sponsor. This offers much greater flexibility for your client in terms of options like individual stocks, ETFs and mutual funds.
The biggest downsides of a Roth IRA account are the income limitations on the ability to contribute and the relatively low annual contribution limits. For 2021, the overall IRA contribution limit is $6,000, with an additional $1,000 in catch-up contributions available for those 50 and over at any point during the year.
The 2021 income limits for Roth contributions are:
Roth 401(k) accounts, also known as designated Roth accounts, have become increasingly common. These accounts have many similarities to Roth IRAs, but also some differences.
Contributions to a Roth 401(k) are made with after-tax dollars like a Roth IRA. Also like a Roth IRA, qualified distributions made after age 59 ½ are tax-free.
One of the biggest advantages of a Roth 401(k) is that there are no income limits on your client’s ability to contribute to their Roth account in the plan. They are able to contribute up to the full amount of salary deferrals allowed for the current calendar year regardless of how high their income is. For 2021 these limits are $19,500 for those under 50 and $26,000 for those participants who are 50 or older at any point during the year.
If the client’s employer offers a match on a portion of the employee’s contributions, this is another advantage of a Roth 401(k) account. Money from an employer match is akin to free money and can add to your client’s 401(k) balance and overall retirement savings amount. Any employer matching contributions are made to your client’s traditional 401(k) account by law.
Your client may be able to take a loan from their Roth 401(k) account if their employer’s plan has a loan provision. This can offer an added degree of flexibility in being able to access their money in the plan if needed.
Another advantage that might benefit some of your clients is that money in a 401(k) account, Roth or traditional, is generally protected from creditors. This can come into play if your client is in a profession that is prone to lawsuits. Creditor protection for assets in an IRA is much more limited.
A key difference between a Roth 401(k) account and a Roth IRA surrounds RMDs. Unlike with a Roth IRA account, Roth 401(k) account holders must take RMDs from their account upon attaining age 72.
Clients who are employed at the time RMDs are supposed to begin can defer RMDs from their 401(k) account with their current employer if they are not 5% or greater owners of the company and if their employer has made the proper election.